Holocaust in years 1939 - 1945

In year 2005 we are celebrating 60. jubilee of end of war (WW2), the victory over Naci Germany and regime of Slovak state. By this occasion we have to remind and mainly not to forget on holocaust victims.

In this section you will find a lot of information about destiny of Jews living in Giraltovce and surrounding villages.

Sources :

Yad Vashem archives Jerusalem.
"Dejiny Giraltoviec", Vychodoslovenske vydavatelstvo (Kosice1992).
Correspondence, personal interviews of survivors.

Created by:  

Gabi Lana
E-mail: gl7@inter.net.il .

Assisted by:  

Arkady Brazin, Webmaster of The Israel Genealogical Society

Link: www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/giraltovce/jewsinvillages.htm
Remake: Ing. Peržeľ Miroslav

 

Geography

Giraltovce is a shtetl in north-eastern part of Slovakia. Has today 4271 inhabitans. It is situated on the stream Radomka and near the river Topla 24 km north-east of Presov. It is 210 m above the sea level. The coordinates are: 4907N 2131E. Postal code: 08701.

 

Political history

The first written testimony about Giraltovce originated in 1416. The nobles from Drienov initiated the settlement of a group of villages : Valkovce, Matovce, Fijas, Francovce and Giraltovce in the 14 th century.

Picture: "Obecný dom"

soffices.jpg (8328 bytes)

"Obecny dom" - includes notary, tax and post offices. In the 1930's Bela Lustbader the notary and Freimann, head of the tax office occupied the official flats.

Until 1918 this region was a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. From then until the Munich agreement in September 1938 it became a part of the Czechoslovakian Republic. On March 14, 1939 the Slovakian State was proclaimed . In 1945 the Czecho-Slovakian Republic was back till  1993, when this state came apart and was divided into two states : The Czech and the Slovak Republics.

Picture: Panorama of Giraltovce year 1944

 

The Community

Picture: Youth 1942

syouth.jpg (6388 bytes)

Youth (Born between 1910-1923) standing from left to right: Israel Eller, Sidi Friedmann, Waechter, Ida Reich, Israel Friedmann, Elza Friedmann, Josef Ziegler, Friedmann, Berl Lichtig; sitting Zishe Liling.     

 

Survivors are printed in blue color.

1. SEIDENFELD

Jakob (1878), Janka (1884). Z'ev [cattle trader]; Jozko [painter], (18.10.1916), Irena (1910), Helena (5.6.1914),  Ester (5.6.1919), Alica-Ajda(18.11.1921).

2. S C H W A R Z

Simon (11.7.1893), [contractor], Irena (3.3.1910).

3. S A U B E R

Jakob (22.2.1858).

4. GRUENWALD

Hermin (1888) [grocer];Marta (22.10.1908), Lezer (3.12.1910),  Sima (1.9.1912), Gizella (25.4.1914), Lebis (26.6.1918), Herman-Zwi (11.1.1920), Regina (17.6.1916), Elu (21.8.1921), Rela-Terezia (11.1.1923), Rachel (14.11.1906).

5. B L I T Z

Salamon [tailor] (4.3.1901), Rozalia (28.3.1891) ;

6. ROSENWASSER

Jozef [tailor]( 29.6.1919).

7. K E P F

Stefan [notary deputy], Aliza.

8. W A H R M A N N

[seamstress] ; Duri, Pali.

9. SCHOENFELD

Nathan [dentist], Frida; Sundi, Oskar.

10. S T A R K

Serena [houswife] (3.1.1886).

11. S T A R K

Samuel [inn-keeper] (25.12.1895), Hermina (8.3.1898); Ella (12.3.1923), Vojtech-Bubi (19.9.1924), Marcel (3.9.1938).

12. S T A R K

Artur [gardener], (20.10.1908), Klara (16.3.1917); Viktor (29.6.1942).

13. EHRENFELD

Terezia [houswife], (24.5.1894);Chana (11.1.1922), Yishayahu (4.2.1926), Gitta (14.5.1923), David (1927)

14. MENDLOVIC

Herman [baker] (24.6.1914), Regina-Rivka (16.6.1916)

15. B E R G E R

Leopold [textile merchant], Rose ; Wolf, Simon (17.11.1911),Josl, Rela, Aranka- Tauba (2.12.1912), Chaim (10.1.1923), Herman (11.6.1924), Ester + Aron (10.9.1938)

16. SONNENTAL

Sani-Alexander [grocer], Serena ; Anna- Anci (5.5.1923), Edita (20.8.1924), Rudolf ; Sabina (15.5.1880).

17. SCHOENFELD

Ignac , [dentist], Vali , Martin (1937).

18. SCHOENFELD

Abraham-Adolf [clark] (1899), Mara (1890); Renata (1930), Stella (1932), Viola (1940).

19. G E W U E R Z   (ENGEL)

Arce, Mojse.

20. FRIEDMANN

Dr Jozef [lawyer], Berta ; Arpi, Ema, Zoli, Tibi , Agnesa (15.9.1922).

21. FREIMANN

[income tax supervisor] ; Sani, Ferdi.

22. LUSTBADER

Vojtech [notary], Irena (1904); Baby/Klara (3.4.1926)

23. FROEHLICH

[farmer] ; Lili, Laci, Magda (6.10.1920), Otto.

24 FROEHLICH

Pali [farmer].

25. LICHTENSTEIN

Mor [mill owner and farmer]; (9.11.1857 - 1944).

26. LICHTENSTEIN

Izidor [mill and power plant owner] (15.7.1889 - 4.7.1976),   Maria (15.5.1894-3.6.93); Imi (23.9.1921), Gabi (30.9.1925)

27. ROSENBERG

Terez [houswife]; Kato, Imre (6.1925).

28. ROSENBERG

Marishka [lawyer secretary] (22.1.1913), Elza (16.8.1921).

29. L I C H T I G

Gitta [houswife] (26.1.1917 ? 10.3.1990) .

30. HOLLAENDER

Hersi [electrician] (20.2.1922- 1945).

31. LICHTENSTEIN

Jozi [mill and power plant owner], (3.2.1893-1945), Sari (29.9.1900); Agi (27.12.1925), Lici (19.8.1927), Greta (21.3.1932), Julia (24.8.1939-1944), Martin (13.9.1940).

32. L I C H T I G

Markus [grocer], Esti (5.2.1988); Bela (12.2.1909), Lebis (11.11.1919), Rosi - Rachel (2.6.1911), Gitl, Mose (24.3.1920), Sima, Lea (3.6.1922)

33. K L A F T E R 

Abraham [farmer] (1877), Chaja ; Baruch (19.6.1918), Dina, Icik.

34. SCHOENFELD 

Moshe [watchmaker] (20.7.1903), Ilona ; Gertruda (10.1.1932), Eva (17.2.1938).

35. HAENDLER

Ignac [shoe and clothing shop], Sara .

36. GROSSMANN

Ignac [shoe and clothing shop] (25.4.1912), Rozika.

37. Z I E G L E R

[glass maker] Roza (9.7.1887); Josl (3.3.1912), Helena (17.1.1915),   Erna, Sara (9.9.1920), Jidl (24.1.1924), Simcha (25.12.1925) Wiliam (10.5.1928).

38. L E F K O V I C

Natan (14.4.1893), Serena (19.5.1899); Markus (25.9), Herman (18.2.26), Regina (5.1.1928), Rozalia (18.7.1930), Jozef (18.8.1932), Samuel (25.5.1937).

39. G O E B E L

Jehuda [taylor] (1875), Lea (15.6.1870); Aharon (29.11.1902), Malvin-Rachel (1907), Malka (20.12.1910), Rivka-Regina (1913), Sara (8.1920-1973), Josef (1908-1976), Shmuel(1900).

40. S A U B E R

Moric [grocer](22.8.1901), Sara (20.61908) ; Leon (14.7.1931), Judita (14.8.1933), Elvira (1.2.1936), Herman (14.4.1940).

41. FRIEDMANN

Blanka [teacher] (7.6.1916).

42. ALTMANN

Mano [butcher] Sara;

43. HAENDLER

Adolf-Abraham [glass maker] (8.1.1889), Anna (1878); Regina (31.3.1903), Imi,  Manci (7.4.1922), Magdalena (3.6.1932), Ludovit (3.4.1934).

44. D E U T S C H

Josef [shochet] Laje; Israel, Jidl, Avrum-Cvi, Jankel (25.1.1919 ? 97), Z`ev, Jisocher, Jicchak (1933), Sheindl, Dvora, Chana, Ester-Elza (17.10.1924).

45. SCHOENFELD

Samuel (1875);Chaim-Henrich [skinner] (12.10.1901),Regina (1907); Leo(1936), Olga (1939), Hedviga (1933).

46. E L L E R  

Eliezer [shames] Chaja-Rivke(26.6.1870); Menachem , Azje, Mojse, Efraim, Aron, Samuel, Israel, Neta, Dvora, Sheindl.

47. KANNENGIESSER

Samuel

48. R E I C H

Izidor [grocer], Fani (1904); Shulamit, Marika (1936).

49. M I L D E R

[butcher] Sose, Serena (1906); Sara (1921), Helena (17.10.1923), Adela (11.1.1926), Izidor, Ladislav (1.1937), Regina (7.3.1940).

50. HAENDLER

Chaim [inn keeper], Fani ; Katarina (17.6.1921), Zoli.

51. FRIEDMANN

Samuel, Mina [seamstress]; Irena , Zoli, Alzbeta-Didi (1.12.1921), Sidonia (17.7.1922), Ajda, Lili (8.1.1920).

52. S A F R A N

Jankel, Gitta ;

53. R E I C H

Jicchak [soda water producer], Berta (1876); Motu-Markus, Mendl (20.2.1906), Israel, Lipi, Seren, Adel (31.1.1916).

54. SCHREIBER

Josefina ; Bori, Ibola , Lili (13.6.1917), Lali , Zoli, Artur, Fishl, Sari, Manya.

55. FRIEDMANN 

Srul, Ella ;

56. FRIEDMANN

Lajos [farmer], Rachel; Srul, Eidel, Jicchak, Rachel-Roza (8.5.1913), Regina-Rivka (20.7.1918), Feige-Fanny (10.2.1921), Mayer-Marek (8.9.1922-1997), Ester-Edita (24.1.1924), Mojse, Jozef, Saje(1925)

57. KLEIMANN 

Dov [shoemaker]; Cvi, Sidonia (24.5.1917), Armin(21.11.1915), Serena (10.6.1920), Elena (16.2.1919), Zlata (7.12.26).

58. M A N D E L

Herman (8.5.1893) [roofer]; Jidl, Srulik (1925).

59. FRIEDMANN

Adolf [taylor], Chana; Israel, Blime, Zoltan-Zise, Majlech, Chaim (14.11.1923), Alzbeta (1.12.1921).

60. MENDLOVIC

Abraham [baker](1886), Sara (1889); Lebis, Mose , Chazkel  (5.9.1923), David (10.11.1924), Perl-Helen, Lea (1925), Rachel, Dvora (1929), Malke-Gitl (1930), Rivka (1927), Arje.

61. WERTHEIMER

Mose [grocer](1887) ; Manci.

62. ROSENBLUT

Julius [stationery shop] (4.1.1875), Sara, (15.12.1884); Lebis- Ladislav (23.12.1915), Emanuel (4.9.1911), Mojse, Mendl, Lenka (12.4.1913), Ajda.

63. R E I C H

Joel [grocer], Helena (1902) ; Fanny (2.1.1922), Lea.

64. L I L I N G

Cvi [shoemaker], Blanka(29.9.1881);Zise-Zigmund,(7.6.1912), Heni-Helena (25.7.1914), Sara(2.7.1919), Feige (18.3.1916).

65. A M S E L

Simon [melamed] (2.3.1890), Bluma (28.11.1896) ; Antonia (1933), Jozef (1939).

66. HOROVIC

Kive [melamed], Sara; Mendl, Lea.

67. S A M E T

Moric [shoemaker], Gizela (1891); Elka, Lea-Lenka, (4.9.1914), Hendl.

68. SICHERMANN

Lajos-Lebis [carpenter] Chaja-Regina; Jicchak , Zehava, Nomi.

69. GOTTLIEB

Jakob Dr [physician];

 

Different groups

F i g h t e r s   i n   p a r t i s a n   t r o u p s

Deutsch Jankel

Friedmann Tibi

 Seidenfeld Jozko

Stark Bubi

Schreiber Lali

Schreiber Bori

  

 

 

E x t e r m i n a t i o n   c a m p s    s u r v i v o r s

Berger Chaim

Friedmann Agi

Friedmann Eva (Matovce)

Froehlich Laci

Grossmann Rachel

Rosenberg Marishka


R e c r u i t e d    i n    t h e   6 th.   B r i g a d e

Friedmann Mayer

Gutmann Laci

Mendlovic Lebis

Froehlich Laci

Gutmann Edo

Mendlovic Mose

Gruenwald Hersi

Lichtenstein Imi (Lana)

Rosenblut Mose

Gruenwald Lebis

Lichtig Lebis

Seidenfeld Jozko  

 

Jewish history

The Jews arrived there in 1750 from the region of Halic in Poland. In 1786 21 Jews lived in 3 houses in Giraltovce. They were 3.2% of the total population of the "shtetl". The community was connected with the rabbinate of Hanusovce, situated 12 km south of Giraltovce.

Approximately in 1800 the cemetery was sanctified.

In 1828 lived 46 Jews in G. in four houses. The names Josef Friedmann, Lazar Gewuerz, Abraham Gottlieb and a widow Lichtenstein were mentioned in documents from the year 1842.

In 1848 there were 137 Jews in G.

A Jewish school was opened in 1890. The principal was Jakob Zukermann. In 1900 the Jewish school merged with the evangelic school and a public first grade school was created. One of the teachers was Ignac Lobelovic.

In 1900 a synagogue was built and several years later a mikve too.

The majority of the community was orthodox. Ignac Haendler, Isidor Lichtenstein and Natan Schoenfeld were in the 1920's and 30's decades heads of the community .

The Jews earned their living mainly from commerce and trade. In the second half of the 19 th century the following physicians were mentioned: 1875 - Dr Henrich Hoffmann, 1885 - 1898 Dr Jacob Weiss, 1899 - Dr Arthur Horowitz and in 1909 Dr Jacob Gottlieb was nominated as chief regional health inspector.

Between the two world wars the Jews were mainly: tailors, shoemakers, carpenters etc. Some of them had food or clothing shops. The local pub, the mill , the sawmill and the electricplant were owned by Jews.

In 1924 the Lichtenstein family built a net and supplied electricity in Giraltovce, Marhan and Krucov, thus raising the life standard of the population. There were also Jewish attorneys and teachers.

In 1867 the Jews of Giraltovce were granted civil rights like all Jews of Hungary.

The Jews participated in the battles of WWI. Abraham Horowitz was mentioned among those killed in the battle.

With the proclamation of the Czechoslovak Republic after WWI the Jews were recognized as a cultural and national minority. At the parliament elections in April 1920 ,475 Jews from Giraltovce voted for the Jewish Party. In the whole district 6751 people voted.

In 1930 the distribution of the national groups was: 1395 Czechoslovak, 7 Russian, 25 Hungarian and 220 Jewish.

At the same period of time there was zionist activity in the shtetl. Bnei Akiba and Betar predominated among the zionist young movements.

In 1941 there were 345 Jews in 58 families.

 

Jews   in    villages    around    Giraltovce
F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 2 .


B r e z o v

1. F E L D M A N N

Adolf [pub owner], Sari (2.12.1904); Anna (26.5.1926)
Jolana (19.8.1927), Magda (1.6.1931).

2. H O E N I G

Ernest [farmer] ;


D u k o v c e

3. S A F R A N

Viliam [farmer](24.7.1879), Katarina (1882); Serena
(8.8.1911), Jakub (3.3.1921),
Miriam, Tobi (23.9.1913), Ester (14.10.1916), Helena
(23.11.1909).

4. D E U T S C H

Ludvik, Rachel ;

5. L E B O V I C

Baruch, Chana ;

F i j a s

6. S E L M A N O V I C

Rozalia [houswife] (10.9.1883).

K r a c u n o v c e

7. G L U E C K

 

8. G O T T D I E N E R

Etel (28.6.1880);

9. L I L I N G

Amalia (25.7.1873)

10. W A L D M A N N

Cecilia (6.1.1908), Rozalia (10.7.1910)

K u k o v a

11. W A E C H T E R

[grocer] ; Berl, Sara(25.2.1925)
Leopold (1923) ,Arnost (4.6.1934), Ferdinand (4.8.1936).


L a s c o v

12. A M S E L

Jakub-Naftali (6.4.1877) [pub owner], Berta ; Feivl
(6.10.1911); 3 girls,1 boy.

13. G O L D B E R G E R

Eugen (2.12.1911), Ester (27.3.1914)



M a r h a n

14. W E I S B E R G E R

Herman [pub owner] (5.11.1898), Erzi (13.4.1904);
Judita (16.7.1927), Lea-Erna (3.3.1930), Arnold (24.5.1932),
Robert (6.5.1938), Agi (25.1.1942).

15. G U T T M A N N

Herman [grocer](12.8.1887), Zenka (16.8.1895);
Tibor(26.1.1916), Ladislav (1918), Edmund (19.5.1920).

16. F O L K M A N N

Moric ; Regina, Samuel, Lajos.

17. F O L K M A N N

Adolf


M a t o v c e

18. F R I E D M A N N

Jakob [grocer], Rozalia ; Eva (19.3.1923),
Tobi, Lea, Baruch, Judit, Margita (31.10.1925).

19. B E R G E R

Armin (13.2.1891)

O k r u h l e

20. B A U M

[grocer] ;Chaim, Rivka, David, Perl, Ester (9.7.1923),
Lea (28.12.1919).

21. B A U M

[pub owner] Josef, Mirjam.

22. L E U T M A N N

Amalia [houswife] (27.11.1897).

23. T A N D L I C H

Moric (9.4.1894), Tibor (30.4.1894), Zoltan (18.4.1930).


S o b o s

24. G E L B A R T

Viliam (10.9.1869); Slomo, David, Irena, Regina (6.10.1921)


S t i a v n i k

25. W O H L

Josef ; Slomo, Regina (4.5.1924), Edit.

26. L I L I N G

Fany (24.9.1880); Lazar (27.7.1904).

S t u l a n y

27. B E R G E R

Jakub (20.6.1928), Izak (20.8.1930).

28. L I L I N G

Fany (8.12.1893); Ruzena (6.6.1921), Helena (7.8.1924),
Serena (30.4.1926), Frantiska (3.8.1927), Jakub (16.12.1932),
Dorota (6.11.1933).

29. R E I S S

Malvina (10.9.1912), Janka (9.1.1914).


Z e l e z n i k

30. G L U E C K

Elemer (10.11.1901), Malka-Malvin (4.2.1897); Rivka,
Zalman, David, Jakub(9.3.1934), Alexander (15.5.1930).

 

The Shoah Period.

As a result of the Munich agreement, in September 1938, the Czechoslovak Republic    was liquidated . In October 1938 Slovakia obtained autonomy. In March 15th 1939 as a vassal  of Nazi Germany an independent Slovak Sate was created .
The strong antisemitic propaganda all over produced within the population
hatred against the Jews. The antisemitic legislation removed the Jews from schools ,offices, social and economy life. The Jewish owned commerce and industry was overtaken by Aryans and until 1942 all Jewish property was liquidated.

The young men were recruited for forced labor within the 6th brigade of the Slovak Army.

In March 1942 began the deportations of Jews in Slovakia . First young women from 16 years of age were deported to extermination camps in Poland. After them they deported the young men. From Giraltovce and the surrounding villages until May 1942 were deported :

                            84 men between the age of 16 ? 55;
                          123 women from the age of 16;
                          115 children up to the age of 16;
                          130 men above the age of 55.

All together 452 Jews from Giraltovce and the surroundings were deported.In March 1944, because of the approaching front, the rest of the Jews from the district were evacuated to the West. Most of them to the concentration camp Zemianska Kert.

Between the years 1941 and 1944 a partisan group, including several Jewish young men were active in the Matiaska forests near Giraltovce. Stefan Kubik Friedmann was one of their important commanders.
The Russian army entered Giraltovce on January 18, 1945 early in the morning.

 

Picture: "The Valley Of Communities " near Yad Vashem  in Jerusalem. Eastern Slovakia "kehilot" section. .

 

After the war.

Only 58 of the 351 Jews of Giraltovce itself survived the war. Some of them returned to the shtetl and left after some time. The family of Jankel Deutsch was the only one who remained there. The others made aliya to Israel or emigrated to the US.

The synagogue was destroyed during the war and all the houses of the Jews were demolished
in the years after the war.

                                                           
Survivors in 2002

Berger Josl Joe

Lichtenstein Greta; Trenk

Berger Hershi Harry

Eng. Lichtenstein Martin

Ehrenfeld Chana;  Bar Shalom

Mendlovic Herman Cvi

Friedmann Agi; Reuter

Rosenberg Marishka; Simon

Friedmann Eva; Wiesel

Rosenberg Imre  Pinchas

Goebel Malka Malvina

Schoenfeld Marci

Gruenwald Herman

Safran Jankel; Jakov

Gruenwald Lebish

Sichermann Arie

Gruenwald Elu

Schwarz Irena;     Rivka Reismann

Guttmann Edo David

Stark Artur; Sedlak

Haendler Kato; Schutzer

Weisberger Erna; Cohen

Klafter Baruch

Weisberger Judit; Greenfield

Eng. Lichtenstein Gabi; Lana

Weisberger Agi; Moskovic

Lichtenstein Agi; Loewy

Ziegler Josef Jerry

Lichtenstein Lici; Horowitz

 

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